Why, in your book devoted to the history of the identity corsica on the long-term, can you distinguish clearly the identity claim of the logical separatist nationalists?
France was formed very gradually, in the course of a millennium. And Nice just like the Savoyards, who have a very strong visual identity, are French only since 1860, well after the Corsica, became, in 1789. The claim of the specificity of the identity of the Corsica has nothing, in essence, that is opposed to the French Republic. Personally, I feel both quite corse and perfectly republican and French. The first president of the Republic has been a Bonaparte, in 1848.
You mention with a certain nostalgia the general of the nation Pascal Paoli, a child of the Enlightenment who was the head of the State in corsica during fourteen years, from 1755 to 1769...
it All began in 1755, date of return, on the island of this great man, Paoli. He was elected the same year general of the nation. He will have to face the Matra, the heirs of Gaffori, and their supporters before taking a stand on the whole island, except the four chair genoa (Bastia, Ajaccio, Calvi, Bonifacio), of the coastal cities. At the end of 1755, Paoli passed a national Constitution corsica very modern: it establishes a justice and a representative government, and establishes the separation of powers.
GRAPHICS >> independent Corsica, a sinking economic announced
The general of the nation at that time the admiration of the Europe of the Enlightenment -philosophers, such as Rousseau, writers, including James Boswell, the sovereign, the enlightened Frederick II of Prussia and Catherine II of Russia. Beyond that, we forget that, in the Former Regime, all the provinces, from Brittany to Alsace, had a vocation to integrate with the kingdom of France, but on the condition that sovereigns comply with their "privileges". With Paoli, the island was opposed to the Republic of Genoa, which agreed to receive that 12 young Corsican per year to do their studies."from 1769, a manifest error has fed the virulence of nationalism"
What form is taken, namely, the mobilization of Pascal Paoli against Genoa?
Paoli, passionate about education, and who has bequeathed all his property to the university and the school of Corte, was the numerus clausus, at once, more than restrictive, and shockingly unjust. Where his successful ght for the independence vis-à-vis Genoa, which has mobilized to prevent that, the troops of Louis XV.
Problem, however: from 1769, a manifest error has been committed, which fed the virulence of nationalism until today: the battle of Ponte-Novo the 8th of may 1769, which gave the victory to Louis XV upon the frail battalion of Paoli (2000 fighters on the 35000 men corsican living on the island) has been perceived by nationalists as a "conquest". However, the truth is that between 1769 and 1789 Corsica was not conquered by France, but only under the overlordship of the king on a provisional basis.
"instead of feeling corsican by blood, it is necessary to learn the history. And the study of his own genealogy," says Michel Vergé-Franceschi.
That is to say?
It was in 1789, after twenty years of occupation (actual), that the six members of Corsica, at the request of their constituents torres, claim the French monarchy their union with France. Mirabeau (strain corsica), November 30, 1789, to enact a decree by the constituent Assembly, linking the island of Corsica to "the French empire", in other words, the French territory (the imperium).
ANALYSIS >> Why the "rising tide of nationalist and does not proclaim independence"
Arriving in Paris on April 5, 1790, Paoli is the bearer of the ideals of the triptych republican. The club of the Jacobins, where it is received, Robespierre welcomes him: "Sir, you have invented the Freedom in a time where we dared not even speak his name." Mirabeau, La Fayette, Bailly, the mayor of Paris, cheered. On 14 July, Paoli landed at Macinaggio, cape Corse, on the day of the feast of the national Federation. And he exclaims: "O my homeland [Corsica], I've left a slave [of Genoa] and I'll find free [with France]." Appointed commander-general of the whole island, Pascal Paoli is the game of the French."Corsica has always been of the men who came from elsewhere,"
Having regard to the teachings of the long-term, how do you explain the revival of nationalism since the 1970s? Is this the counterpart local a global phenomenon, the globalization?
Yes, that is clear. At the local level, these are the events of Aléria in 1975, which served as a trigger. Dr. Edmond Simeoni, at the time, is a gastroenterologist for a period of forty years. He has an open mind, and, after his studies at Marseilles, he married an Alsatian of jewish origin, Polish. The occurrence of an attack of wineries belonging to a foot-and-black business practices to say the least tortuous; gold corsican wine growers are very tucked up against the facilities that the State consents to growers blackfoot to settle on the island.
Simeoni insists on the denial of justice represented by these exemptions; it requires the same facilities to the young Corsican. Today, his son, Gilles Simeoni, president of the exéexecutive, and Jean-Guy Talamoni, the president of the Corsican Assembly, define the "corsican people" as "all of the people who live in Corsica". Definition that is not ethnic-genealogical. For my part, in positions of teaching at the secondary level and higher that I busy and that I occupy, I am always compelled to do their genealogy to all of my students.
This thwarts any temptation to absolutism of identity, or of drift in this direction. Instead of feeling corsican by blood, it is necessary to learn the history; and the study of his own genealogy to understand that the island and its people is the result of the constant mixing -Corsican, Genoese, Lucquois, Milanese, Venetians, Russians... in Short, that the island is the result of what is called a "melting pot".
INTERVIEW >> corsican Language: "The co-officialité would be impossible to put in place."
It is little mentioned in the current debate...
It is a pity. We have ancestors, some were of Corsican "strain", others who came from Lucca, where they were agricultural workers, others who were genoese, venetian,... The Corse-like any island - has always been a place of passage. Its identity is built in these permanent comings and goings. She has always given men (mercenaries, condottieri, sculptors, painters, artists, factors, builders, labourers, artisans, fishermen...) come from elsewhere and have made stock with women corsican.
Isn't this likely to be forgotten due to the radicalization of a part of the camp nationalist?
Yes, we are seeing up to a certain point in the construction of a gesture "national" which is not consistent with the Story. As if we were looking to produce a divorce between the island and France, polémiquement reduced to a formula a misnomer: "the French State" -a formulation that always makes me think of Vichy, and not the French Republic and its values, which are not French, but universal: "Freedom. Equality. Brotherhood." The words, this is important, because the pen must always prevail over the sword. I use only, for my part, the expression "French Republic", and not "French State" -"Work. Family. Fatherland"."The double specificity of the Corsican imposes a number of handicaps"
Emmanuel Macron a-t-he correctly posed equations of the problem during his recent visit?
As a participant of the first hour of movement, running!, I have followed with great attention the trip to the presidential, but I lamented also several blunders.
The idea that some causes do not "argue"! This has raised an outcry that legitimate lawyers. Papon and Barbie have had their defenders! The trip to the presidential has been marked above all by two good women that are echoed without seeing.
Why do you find admirable?
The widow of Claude Erignac, Dominique, with his bottom in black crepe, opened his speech in front of the lawyer of Yvan Colonna, by these words of great conciliation: "Dear friends"! In deep mourning, she unveiled a plaque written in both languages, French and corsican, in memory of her husband, the "place Erignac, piazza Erignac", before call to peace and brotherhood.
in The evening, another woman, equally beautiful, the wife of Yvan Colonna, Stephanie, in speaking to the president of the Republic, has recognized -de facto - Emmanuel Macron as the head of State (what some in the island are not). She screamed: "I'm not talking about amnesty!" recognizing the laws of the Republic. By legitimizing presidential power, institutions, and justice French, Ms. Colonna has shown republican echo Ms. Erignac. I found in the symbolism of this chassé-croisé a sublime lesson of hope. These two women, bearers of life - speaking all of two of their children, have shown the example to all the men present -sometimes carriers of death.
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heads-t-towards a new model of inscription of Corsica within the Republic?
One can hope. The double particularism territorial Corsica -an island-mountain - imposes on its inhabitants a number of handicaps which are real but very badly perceived by the continental, or even ignored. The whole output of the island will cost 250 euros, a plane, that one is mother of a prisoner or a student cortenais! It should be a result of this feature, some compensation, and even compensation some.
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* Historian, professor at the university of Tours, he is the author of A history of the identity corsica (Payot, 2017) and several other tests, including Pascal Paoli: a Corsican Lights (Fayard, 2005), which is crowned by the French Academy, and Pascal Paoli and women (ed Colonna, 2015), in collaboration with Anna Moretti.
Publish Date : 06 Kasım 2018 Salı 14:43
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